To know piping design basics by going through the following points: Design of pressure components. Pipe Span calculations. Design of pressure piping Many decisions need be made in the design phase to achieve this successful operation, including: - Required process fluid quantity.
The codes provide minimal assistance with any of these decisions as the codes are not design manuals. Limitations: Code, Pressure, Temperature, How long is the plant lifetime, What is the plant reliability, etc.
Piping designed according to B Reliability of piping under B Each system be it vessel or piping has some base pressure-temperature rating. This is essentially the pressure temperature rating of the weakest member of the system. This can be translated that no minor component valve, flange, etc shall be the weakest link.
The key components of the design conditions are the design pressure and the design temperature. Design pressure is defined as the most severe sustained pressure which results in the greatest component thickness and the highest component pressure rating.
Design temperature is defined as the sustained pipe metal temperature representing the most severe conditions of coincident pressure and temperature. Thus we can try to simplify our stresses into two main categories; Pressure stress is the circumferential stress primary stress or hoop stress, which is known to be not self limiting. Temperature stress is the shear or bending stress Secondary stressknown to be self limiting.
If anyone has objection with this, kindly email at ankit pipingguide. Proper action shall be taken within 48 hours. Post a Comment. Just enter your email address:. To know piping design basics by going through the following points:. Many decisions need be made in the design phase to achieve this successful operation, including:. The code assists the designer in determining adequate pipe wall thickness for a given material and design conditions as follows:.
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View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Plastic Pipe Plumbing Systems. Provided by: MichaelS Tags: body mechanics pipe plastic plumbing systems. Latest Highest Rated. CPVC chlorinated polyvinyl chloride is used in hot and cold water supply.
Although it costs three to four times more than PVC it normally is used because it withstands heat and maintains its strength. The local plumbing code should be checked prior to CPVC installation. Class sizes are designed for a specific working pressure ex. Class psi. Common class sizes are, and Rigid plastic pipe is available in standard 20 feet lengths.
Types of Plumbing and Pipe Fittings – Names and Pictures
The OD remains constant while the ID varies according to weight this allows the use of the same fittings. Primer is essential for a solvent weld joint in plastic pipe and us used for pipe larger than 1.
Priming cleans the surface, removes glaze, and starts the softening process to make a proper joint. Use the appropriate primer for the type of plastic pipe being used. Use the appropriate type for the pipe being used. All purpose or universal solvent glues are convenient to use when using more than one type of plastic pipe.Types of plumbing system for house drainage
Time and temperature play an important role in getting a good seal. Lighter body faster setting glue is unused on small pipe and heavier body slower setting glues is used on large pipe.
Special glue is available that works well on wet pipe for use in repair of sprinkler systems. Schedule 40 or 80 is recommended for out-of-ground exposed work. PE-RT raised temperature used in domestic hot and cold water systems.
Flexible PE tubing can be used only for outside cold water systems such as wells or sprinklers. Stainless steel base clamps are used to secure the slip joints. Solvent is not used. Irrigation applications use low pressure slip on connectors There are several advantages to working with flexible plastic tubing low material cost, ease and speed to work with, and flexibility. If it is not exposed to direct sunlight, flexible plastic tubing has a long life expectancy.
Flexible plastic tubing creates less friction loss than metal pipes do. Compression fittings similar to copper tubing are used. Compression fittings specifically designed for use the PE tubing should be used. Common applications are water supplies for swamp coolers and refrigerators. PIP comes in pressure ratings of 22 psi, 50 psi, 80 psi, psi, and psi and Is generally available in diameters of 6", 8", 10", 12", 15", 18", 21", and 24".C The energy changes occur by two main parts of the pump, the impeller and the volute or diffuser.
The impeller is the rotating part that converts driver energy into the kinetic energy. The volute or diffuser is the stationary part that converts the kinetic energy into pressure energy. The amount of energy given to the liquid is proportional to the velocity at the vane tip of the impeller. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, then the higher will be the velocity of the liquid at the vane tip and the greater the energy imparted to the liquid.
The first resistance is created by the pump volute casing that catches the liquid and slows it down. In the discharge nozzle, the liquid further decelerates and its velocity is converted to pressure according to Bernoullis principle. Therefore, the head pressure in terms of height of liquid developed is approximately equal to the velocity energy at the periphery of the impeller.
This process is called Priming. When the impeller rotates, it spins the liquid filled between the vanes outward due to centrifugal action. As liquid leaves the eye of the impeller, a low- pressure area vacuum is created at the eye of impeller. This creates Differential Pressure between water source and impeller eye, causing liquid to flow toward the inlet. It exists when the source of liquid is below the pump centre line and attracts a negative sign.
Static Suction Head hss : It is the vertical distance from liquid level to pump centre line. It exists when the source of liquid is above the pump centre line and attracts a positive sign. Static Delivery Head hsd : It is the vertical distance from pump centre line to the highest discharge point.
Total Suction Lift Manometric Lift Hm : It is the sum of total static suction lift and frictional head in suction branch. Francis vane : Radial flow impellers with double curvature of the vanes at the inlet.
Mixed flow : Liquid enters axially and discharging in an axial and radial direction. Axial flow : Liquid enters axially and discharging nearly axially.
These impellers are used for clear water. Semi Open Impeller : A semi open impeller has exposed vanes, but with a support plate or shroud on one side. These impellers are generally used for liquids with small percentage of solids.
Open Impellers : Mostly open impellers are used in axial flow pumps. These impellers move lot of volume but not lot of head or pressure. It is a dimensionless index, which determine the profile of the impeller and performance of the pump.
This loss has a direct bearing on the capability of the impeller to suck the specified amount of liquid. Loss can be kept low by correct vane shape and finish. This loss can be minimized by running the pump with close but not dangerously close clearance. The loss can be kept low by providing a good machining or casting finish to the impeller walls. Reducing the volume of liquid between impeller and volute walls is also an advantage. Losses can be kept low by smooth finish, correct velocity and distribution of flow.
Pump input BPkW : The power delivered to the pump shaft by the primemover through pump coupling or through direct shaft. Pump output LPkW : The power delivered by the pump in the form of discharge at a given head. It takes care of the atmospheric pressure at the site and the temperature of pumping liquid which affect the pump performance. It is the minimum energy required at the pump inlet to exhibit the rated performance as per the characteristic curve.
As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to a higher pressure area above the vapor pressure, they rapidly collapse.Ksct mod games
Cavitation results in : Noise. Pitting of impeller and Devlivery casing. Reduction in discharge and efficiency.Fresh water comes in under pressure to fixtures such as sinks, bathtubs, showers and toilet tanks. Need to hire a plumber?
Types of Pipe Fittings Used in Piping
Get a free estimate online from top local home service pros in your area. Waste water is expelled from the home through drain pipes and from there into the sewer or septic system. Vent stacks help the water drain and vent sewer gases to the outside.
Here are some of the most common:. Adaptors connect pipes that are not the same type. Because an adaptor can be male or female on one end, it can turn a pipe male or female.
If ends are non-threaded, they are left to be welded, soldered or glued to the pipe. Adaptors are used for PVC and copper piping.
A barb connects hoses to pipes. It is usually male at one end. The other has a barbed tube, which is a ridged and tapered cone. It may also have a type of clamp to keep it secure. Barbs are made of plastic if they carry cold water and brass if they carry hot water. A coupling makes it easy to connect two pipes that have the same diameter and are the same type. Along with a normal coupling, two other types are the compression coupling and slip coupling.
The compression fitting is connected between two pipes via rubber seals or gaskets on both sides which prevents leaking.
A slip coupling includes two pipes, one of which slides out of the other pipe to a various length, to repair a specific length of damaged pipe. A cross fitting has openings on all four of its ends and can connect four pipes.Objectives After completing this chapter, the student should be able to: identify and describe common types of fittings in a residential plumbing installation.
Flexible tubing allows offsets to be created without fittings. Reference to the degree of a fitting is common when ordering fittings for most systems. When DWV cast iron fittings are ordered, the ordering process involves the percent of a circle a fitting represents.Unimore
Various Fitting Designs Fittings are offered with two basic connection types: fittings receiving pipe and fittings that are inserted into a hub. A fitting design known as a street fitting has one end that receives pipe and one end that is the same connection type as the pipe.
Various Fitting Designs Not all material types or fitting designs are offered in a street-fitting design. Some piping systems such as No-hub cast iron NHCI are not offered with a hub, and are therefore not considered a street design. Pressure-type plastic piping products that utilize a solvent weld glue joint have a deeper socket than a plastic DWV fitting. Offsets Similarities of all offset fittings are the change of direction they achieve. A 90 fitting that is installed to create a perpendicular change in direction in a piping system.
Pressure systems, such as water and gas, use a short design pattern, and DWV use a longer radius design pattern. Tees A fitting having three connections used for pressure systems is known as a tee. A tee is ordered stating the largest size side first and also stating the size of the run before the size of the branch.
If all three sides are the same size, order the tee using the one size. When both sides of the run are the same size, order the tee using the single run size and the branch size. Couplings A coupling is also known as a sleeve and connects two equal-sized pipe ends to form one continuous pipe.
Except for SVCI service weight cast iron pipe, every piping system uses a coupling to connect two pipe ends. A coupling is not offered in a street design. Reducers A fitting designed to connect two different pipe sizes together is called a reducer. A reducing coupling and the fitting reducer are two different design styles.Gw2 legendary weapons
A fitting reducer is a street fitting, and the largest side is the street side, which inserts into a socket of another fitting to reduce a pipe size. A reducing tee is commonly created by inserting a fitting reducer into side 2 or side 3 of a tee. Bushings A bushing is a fitting design for connecting two different pipe sizes.
Similar to a fitting reducer, except more compact. A bushing inserts into a fitting hub and receives a pipe end or street fitting. Not all types of piping systems use bushings. They are more common for threaded and plastic systems. Male Adapter It has external threads on one end and a socket connection on the other end.
Small sizes of copper male adapters are offered with a street end. Flexible tubing systems use male adapters that insert the unthreaded portion into the tubing, leaving the threaded portion exposed to screw into the desired location. Female Adapter It has internal threads on one end and a socket on the other end. A female adapter is the opposite of a male adapter relating to its threaded portion. The threaded portion can receive any material type that has external tapered threads compatible with National Pipe Thread NPT standards.
Unions It is a fitting designed to provide access directly within a piping system. Most codes dictate that unions remain accessible.
Most gas codes dictate that a union cannot be installed in a ceiling. Various designs are available to connect similar and dissimilar materials. DWV systems utilize them for portions of a system that require sewage pumps.
Water Distribution Water that is safe for human consumption is free from impurities and is known as potable water.Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. By: dethscrim 78 month s ago. Hope to hear from you soon. See the Fittings chart on page also illustrated on slide in this tutorial in your text for complete listings of schedules.
By following the row across from the NPS, you will be able to find the specific wall thickness under a designated schedule for each pipe size. The wall thickness is 0. Pipe wall thicknesses vary according to the operating temperature and pressure requirements of the system. This split ring has pins or spacer nubs that create an equal space between pipe ends and melt when the pipe is welded. It also helps prevent any of the weld material from dripping into the pipe and causing obstructions inside the pipe that would interfere with the content flow.
Your company standards and policies will determine whether you use double line representation or not. Terms: Riser — refers to vertical pipe in which fluid flows upward Downcomer — vertical pipe in which fluid flows downward Fitting-to-fitting FTF — refers to an assembly that has no straight runs of pipe, just fittings.
A pipe drafter needs to know the appropriate fittings to assemble or put together to make an efficient pipe assembly. The threaded flange has the same dimensions as the slip-on flange.
Blind creates temporary seal on the end of a pipe run used where future expansion to the process is anticipated PowerPoint Presentation: Orifice Flange Typically used with an orifice plate to measure flow through a pipe Two orifice flanges are bolted together with the orifice plate between them. There is a gasket between each flange and the plate.
PowerPoint Presentation: Flange facings machined feature applied to the face of the flange can have different finishes applied to it; smooth, serrated or grooved Raised face: R.
Commonly used for mating with non-steel flanges found on pump bodies and other cast iron fittings and valves with pressure rating of psi Gasket can be greater in diameter than the flange itself Using flat face flanges reduces danger of cracking cast iron flanges PowerPoint Presentation: Ring-joint: R.
PowerPoint Presentation: Thanks for viewing this Tutorial. Any questions, comments or complaints can be registered at the next class meeting, via email or drop by my office. Email: rstrube mail. Pipe Drafting and Design. Shumaker, Terence M. Process Pipe Drafting.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Asmamaw Yeniealem. Use of basic tools and bench vice. Safe handling of tools and fittings. Types of gland packing.
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Types of pipe and fittings. Cha Wrench. Use of blowlamp and flame control. Uniform heating. Avoidance of burning. Bending on former. Preparation of Socket, Cleanliness.
Application of solvent cement assembly methods. Drain gradients use of sight rails. Methods of jointing cast iron pipes. Reasons for joining methods, when and where to use.
Use of chain wheel, melting pots, ladle, splash stick, caulking chisel. Introduction to gasket. By — laws in local authority. Methods of connection. Selection of taps and valves, inspect packing glands and washers, replace packing gland and washers, adjust locking nuts ensuring no leaks when tested.
Pipes: From a given sketch, calculate and measure length of G. Mark out and cut to size.Open subtitles download
Thread and Bend G. Pipe diameter to be maintained, no distortion. Pipes: Using completed items of above activity and from given drawing, assemble G.
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